Python Reflection Tutorial – Complete Guide

As an enthusiastic programmer, you’re likely already familiar with many Python concepts. But have you ever delved into the reflective capabilities of Python? Reflection, in the context of programming, refers to the ability of a computer program to examine, introspect, and modify its own structure and behavior. But why should you care about reflection in Python? Let’s explore.

What is Python Reflection?

Reflection is a powerful tool, allowing us as developers to manipulate and interact with our code in dynamic and interesting ways. In Python, reflection features provide the ability for a program to manipulate its properties and methods at runtime, giving you the ability to inspect classes, modules, and functions, among others.

Why Should I Learn Python Reflection?

Understanding reflection in Python can unlock a deeper level of control and overview over your programs. It allows you to build more dynamic and flexible applications, capable of adapting their behavior based on runtime conditions.

Imagine creating a game where each character can modify their own abilities and characteristics on the fly, based on the changes in the game environment. That kind of adaptive behavior is possible with Python reflection.

Leveraging reflection can seem a bit intimidating at first, especially to beginner programmers, but don’t fret! Let’s dive into the practical use of reflection in Python and you’ll see how it can become a valuable tool in your coding repertoire.

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Python Reflection – Examining Attributes and Methods

In Python, everything is an object – from integers and strings, to functions, classes, and modules. The dir() method is a built-in Python function that we can use to examine an object’s attributes and methods.

Consider the following example:

class MyClass:
  def method_a(self):

  def method_b(self):

obj = MyClass()

The code above prints all the methods available to an instance of MyClass, including our defined methods, method_a and method_b.

Python Reflection – Fetching Attributes

Python provides another useful function, getattr(), that allows us to fetch an attribute from an object by its name:

class MyClass:
  attribute = "Hello, World!"

obj = MyClass()
print(getattr(obj, 'attribute'))

In this code, we used getattr() to fetch the attribute from the object, which in turn prints “Hello, World!”

Python Reflection – Setting Attributes

Similarly, we have setattr(), which allows us to set an attribute on an object:

class MyClass:
  attribute = ""

obj = MyClass()

setattr(obj, 'attribute', 'Hello, World!')
print(getattr(obj, 'attribute'))

We used setattr() to set the attribute of our object to “Hello, World!”. Thus, when we fetch and print the attribute, it displays “Hello, World!”.

Python Reflection – Examining Modules

Reflection also allows examining imported modules. Consider the following example:

import math

Here we imported the math module and used dir() to list all the functions and attributes available in the module.

By using these reflection methods, you can achieve a greater level of control and awareness in your Python programs. Let’s move on to some interesting types of reflection next.

Python Reflection – Calling Functions and Methods

Not only can we examine and modify attributes, but we can also invoke methods dynamically using reflection. We’ll use the getattr() function to perform this task.

Take a look at the following example:

class MyClass:
  def greet(self):
    return "Hello, World!"

obj = MyClass()
method = getattr(obj, 'greet')

In this code, we’re calling getattr() to fetch the greet method from our object. We then call this method, which in turn returns “Hello, World!”.

Python Reflection – Checking Existence of Attributes

Using the hasattr() function, Python allows us to check if an attribute exists for a particular object.

class MyClass:
  attribute = "Hello, World!"

obj = MyClass()

if hasattr(obj, 'attribute'):
  print("Attribute exists!")
  print("Attribute does not exist!")

This code checks whether the attribute exists for our object. If it does, it prints “Attribute exists!”, otherwise it prints “Attribute does not exist!”.

Python Reflection – Deleting Attributes

Python reflection can also be used to delete an object’s attributes with the delattr() function.

class MyClass:
  attribute = "Hello, World!"

obj = MyClass()

delattr(obj, 'attribute')

print(hasattr(obj, 'attribute'))

After deleting the attribute using delattr(), we check its existence again. The output will be False, indicating that the attribute no longer exists.

Python Reflection – Working with Class Objects

Reflection with class objects allows us to dynamically create instances of classes, call methods, and access attributes. Let’s see an example:

class MyClass:
  def greet(self):
    return "Hello, Zenva Learner!"

className = 'MyClass'
classInstance = globals()[className]()
method = getattr(classInstance, 'greet')

Here, we initialized an instance of MyClass using globals().

We then dynamically fetched the greet method, invoked it, and printed its return value – “Hello, Zenva Learner!”.

With the power of Python reflection, our code becomes more versatile, adaptable, and powerful. Make sure you utilize these techniques in your future Python adventures! Remember, with great power comes great responsibility.

Where To Go Next?

It’s clear that Python reflection opens up a whole new layer of programming, providing opportunities for dynamic and flexible coding. But where does one go after understanding this concept? As with any programming skill, the answer revolves around continued learning and practice.

If you’re fascinated by Python and want to dive deeper into this versatile language, you might be interested in our Python Mini-Degree. This comprehensive compilation of Python courses covers diverse topics from learning coding basics and delving into algorithms, to mastering object-oriented programming and diving into game and app development.

Whether you’ve just started your Python journey or are an experienced developer looking to sharpen your skills, our Python Mini-Degree is designed to cater to your needs. Each of the included courses offers a step-by-step approach to learning, allowing you to work on projects at your own pace and gain practical experience.

For a broader look at Python courses available at Zenva, check out our Python Courses collection. This collection features a wide range of curriculum to help you continue your Python journey.

Remember, as a leading online academy specializing in coding, game creation, and more, we strive to provide high-quality content to equip you, our learners, with skills you need to excel in your chosen path. Happy learning!


The journey of mastering a programming language is filled with the discovery of interesting concepts and tools that can make your code more flexible and powerful. Python reflection is surely one of those exciting paths. As you continue your Python exploration, remember to revisit and utilize reflection to create dynamic and adaptable applications.

At Zenva, we’re excited to support you on this journey. Our Python Mini-Degree stands ready to take your Python proficiency to the next level. With these practical, project-based courses in your toolkit, you’ll be well on your way to becoming a skilled Pythonista. Happy coding!

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