C# Basics Tutorial – Complete Guide

Aspiring to create your very own game or looking to dive into the world of programming? You’ve landed in the right place. Through this comprehensive tutorial, we’ll be walking you through the exciting journey of understanding and implementing C# basics. C# is an excellent language to kick start your coding adventure, especially when it comes to game development!

What is C#?

C# is a powerful programming language that offers a balanced blend of simplicity and expressive power. It was developed by Microsoft and is majorly used in game development, particularly with the robust Unity game engine.

Importance of learning C#

Why learn C#? The secret sauce to C#’s popularity lies in its versatility. It can be used for a myriad of developments such as mobile applications, game development, and even web services. This makes it an invaluable skill in almost every sector of the tech industry.

Moreover, if you’re eyeing the gaming realm, knowing C# can give you a significant edge. Most games on the Unity engine are scripted using C#, giving you the ability to manipulate every aspect of the game environment.

Practicality of C#

Finally, C# strikes a perfect balance between readability and complexity. Its syntax is easy to understand, yet sufficiently expressive to execute complex tasks. As a beginner, grabbing hold of this language will set a strong foundation for you to learn more advanced languages later on.

Now on to the fun part. Over the following sections, we’re going to show you how to actually write in C#. Through engaging examples and simplified explanations, we will make programming a breeze even for the beginners amongst you!

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Getting Started with C# Basics

Like any other programming language, C# has its basic building blocks. Before we can start creating games and apps, we need to understand these concepts. Let’s cover them one by one.

How to Print “Hello, World!”

Printing ‘Hello, World!’ is a time-honored tradition that everyone goes through when learning a new coding language. Here’s how to do it in C#:

using System;
class Program
    static void Main()
        Console.WriteLine("Hello, World!");

This program uses the “Console.WriteLine” method to print the phrase “Hello, World!” on the console.

Understanding Variables

Variables are the bread and butter of any programming language. They are used to store data. In C#, you need to declare the variable type before naming it. Here’s an example:

int myNumber = 10;
string myName = "Zenva";
bool myBool = true;

In this piece of code, we have created an integer variable ‘myNumber’ and assigned it a value of 10. Then, we declared a string variable ‘myName’ with a value of “Zenva”. Finally, we declared a boolean variable ‘myBool’ with a value of true.

Understanding Functions

Functions are used to perform specific tasks. They help keep your code organized and manageable. You can define a function using the ‘void’ keyword. Here’s an example:

static void SayHello()
    Console.WriteLine("Hello, Zenva user!");

To call this function, you can use its name followed by parentheses:


Understanding Conditionals

Conditional statements allow you to control the flow of your program. ‘If’ statements in C# work much the same as in most programming languages. Here’s an example:

int age = 20;
if (age > 18)
    Console.WriteLine("You are an adult!");
    Console.WriteLine("You are not an adult!");

That’s a quick tour through some of the most important basics of C#. Stay tuned for the next part where we delve into more advanced concepts and begin building more comprehensive programs!

Understanding Loops

Loops are essential in programming as they allow you to execute a block of code multiple times. C# supports several types of loops, including ‘for’, ‘while’, and ‘do while’ loops.

Let’s see how a basic ‘for’ loop works in C#:

for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++)

This loop prints the numbers 0 through 4 in the console.

Understanding Arrays

Arrays are used to store multiple values in a single variable. In C#, you can declare an array by specifying the type of its elements. Here’s how:

int[] myArray = {10, 20, 30, 40, 50};

You can access the elements of an array using indices:

Console.WriteLine(myArray[0]); // Prints 10

Understanding Classes and Objects

Being an Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) language, C# makes extensive use of classes and objects. A class is a blueprint for creating objects (a particular data structure), providing initial values for state (member variables or attributes), and implementations of behavior (member functions or methods).

Here’s an example of how to define a class and instantiate an object in C#:

public class Car
    public string model;
    public int year;

Car myCar = new Car();
myCar.model = "Mustang";
myCar.year = 1969;

Here, we have defined a ‘Car’ class with two attributes: ‘model’ and ‘year’. We then create an object ‘myCar’ and assign values to its attributes.

Utilising User-Defined Methods

Here’s an example of using a user-defined method in our ‘Car’ class:

public class Car
    public string model;
    public int year;

    public void Honk()
        Console.WriteLine("Beep Beep!");

Car myCar = new Car();
myCar.model = "Mustang";
myCar.year = 1969;
myCar.Honk(); // Outputs "Beep Beep!"

Congratulations! You’ve just learned some of the most crucial concepts in C#. Mastering these will give you a solid start into this language and help you grasp more advanced topics. Remember, repetition is key when learning a new language, so don’t hesitate to play around with the examples and make adjustments to see the resulting changes.

Understanding Namespaces

Namespaces in C# are used to group and organize code elements such as classes, structs, enums, interfaces, and delegates, enabling you to create globally unique classes. Here is an example:

namespace Zenva
    class Program
        static void Main(string[] args)
            // Your code here

In this code snippet, a namespace called ‘Zenva’ is created, which encapsulates the ‘Program’ class.

Declaring and Using Interfaces

Interfaces in C# provide a way to enforce particular behaviors or capabilities for classes irrespective of their specific inheritance. An interface can be defined using the ‘interface’ keyword:

interface IZenva{
    void Display();

public class User : IZenva {
    public void Display() {
        Console.WriteLine("Interface method implemented");

User obj = new User();
obj.Display(); // Outputs "Interface method implemented"

The interface ‘IZenva’ declares a method named ‘Display’ and class ‘User’ implementing this interface provides the concrete implementation of the ‘Display’ method.

Using Enums

Enums or Enumerations in C# are a set of named integral constants that help make code clearer and easier to read. Here’s an example:

enum Days {Sun, Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat};
Days day = Days.Fri;
Console.WriteLine(day); // Outputs "Fri"

We create an enum ‘Days’ that represents the seven days of the week. Then we declare a variable ‘day’ of type ‘Days’ and assign it a value.

Syntax for ‘switch’ Statement

A ‘switch’ statement in C# allows a variable to be tested for equality against a list of values. Here’s an example:

int switch_on = 3;
    case 1:
        Console.WriteLine("Value is 1");
    case 2:
        Console.WriteLine("Value is 2");
    case 3:
        Console.WriteLine("Value is 3");
        Console.WriteLine("No match");
// Outputs "Value is 3"

We utilize the ‘switch’ statement to evaluate the ‘switch_on’ variable. Since its value is 3, the program outputs “Value is 3”.

What’s Next?

That wraps up our tutorial on C# fundamentals. You have now learnt various core concepts including loops, arrays, interfaces, and more. Next, you can delve deeper into C# by exploring more complex data structures, LINQ (Language-Integrated Query), and developing games with Unity using C#. The fascinating world of C# awaits you!

What’s Next on Your Learning Journey?

Congratulations on reaching the end of this introduction to C# basics! However, don’t stop here, the realm of programming is vast and filled with endless learning opportunities.

Unlock your potential even further with our Unity Game Development Mini-Degree! This comprehensive collection of courses at Zenva Academy will open the door to the world of Unity, one of the most popular game engines, hugely preferred by AAA and indie developers alike. With courses focusing on game mechanics, animation, audio effects, and AI, it’s time to lend your creativity a greater scope while steadily building a strong portfolio of Unity games and projects.

Our mini-degree program is suitable for beginners and experienced developers alike and offers flexible learning options tailored to cater to your busy schedule. As the technology advances, we make sure our program is up-to-date, ensuring you always stay ahead of the curve. Check out our Unity course collection to access more Unity-related content. With Zenva, you have over 250 supported courses to choose from to boost your career. So, gear up for an exciting journey to transform from a beginner into a professional!


We hope that this comprehensive walk-through of C# basics has given you a solid start and ignited your curiosity for more. This versatile language opens exciting doors, especially if you’re drawn towards game development. Keep exploring, learning, and practicing to make your mark in the world of coding!

Remember, at Zenva, we are always here to guide you on your programming journey. Our experienced instructors have designed our courses with a learning-by-doing approach in mind, making complicated concepts easy to understand while also keeping them fun and engaging. Take the next step towards mastering game development with our Unity Game Development Mini-Degree today!

Did you come across any errors in this tutorial? Please let us know by completing this form and we’ll look into it!

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