Python Random Tutorial – Complete Guide

Welcome to our comprehensive tutorial on Python’s random module. Regardless of your experience level, understanding how to generate and manipulate random data is essential in numerous fields, such as gaming, data science, and artificial intelligence, to name a few.

What is Python’s Random Module?

Python’s random module is a built-in library that allows you to perform random operations. From generating pseudo-random numbers to choosing random elements from a list, this powerful tool comes in handy in a multitude of coding scenarios.

Randomness is an indispensable aspect of programming. It plays a crucial role in games, for varying enemy behaviors or loot drops, cryptographic security, and even in machine learning for tasks like data sample randomization.

Understanding how to effectively apply randomness in your programs can add an extra layer of complexity and realism. In a gaming scenario, randomness can create unpredictable and challenging enemy patterns. In a data science task, it allows you to create robust and unbiased machine learning models. Therefore, grasping Python’s random module is undeniably a useful skill for any programmer. Let’s jump into the coding tutorial to explore more of its capabilities!

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Python Random Module: Basic Functions

First, it’s important to mention that before using any function from the random module, we need to import it into our program. This is done via the “import” statement as shown below:

import random

Now, let’s explore some basic functions of the random module.

1. random()

The random() function generates a random float number between 0.0 to 1.0.

import random

2. randint()

The randint() function generates a random integer between two given integers.

import random
print(random.randint(1, 10))

3. uniform()

The uniform() function generates a random float number between two given numbers.

import random
print(random.uniform(1.5, 5.5))

4. choice()

The choice() function chooses a random item from a list, tuple, or string.

import random



Python Random Module: Advanced Functions

The random module offers more complex functions for enhanced control of the randomness in your programs.

1. shuffle()

The shuffle() function randomly reorders the elements in a list.

import random
my_list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

2. sample()

The sample() function returns a specified number of random items from a list, tuple, or string.

import random
print(random.sample('python', 3))

By learning to use these various functions, you can start adding complex randomness to your Python projects. From game development to data science, a strong grasp of Python’s random module will serve you well!

Python Random Module: Advanced Concepts

As we deepen our understanding of Python’s random module, we can start exploring more advanced concepts which offer additional functionality.

1. randrange()

The randrange() function returns a randomly selected element from the range provided. We can also specify a step parameter to skip numbers.

import random
print(random.randrange(0, 101, 10))  # This will print a random multiple of 10 between 0 and 100

2. choices()

The choices() function is similar to choice(). But it also allows us to repeat elements in the selection.

import random
print(random.choices([1, 2, 3, 4, 5], k=3))  # This will print 3 numbers with possible repetitions

3. getstate() and setstate()

The getstate() and setstate() functions allow you to save and restore the internal state of the random generator. This is useful when you need the same random sequence for debugging.

import random
state = random.getstate()
print(random.randint(1, 10))  # Print a random number
print(random.randint(1, 10))  # Print the same random number

4. gauss()

In the realm of statistics, the gauss() function generates a random float number based on Gaussian distribution.

import random
print(random.gauss(0, 1))  # This will print a number from the Gaussian distribution with mean 0 and standard deviation 1

5. seed()

The seed() function customizes the start number for your random number generator. If you use the same seed value twice, you get the same random numbers each time.

import random
print(random.random())  # Print a random number
print(random.random())  # Print the same random number

By mastering these advanced concepts, you gain greater control and versatility when dealing with random data. The power of Python’s random module lies in it’s ability to cater to varying levels of complexity. From the simplicity of random integers to the complexity of Gaussian distributions, with Python’s random module the possibilities are indeed limitless!

Where To Go Next

You’ve made your first strides into the vast world of Python’s random module, and there’s much more you can learn. In fact, learning programming and coding is an ongoing journey. With each new concept you grasp, a plethora of new paths opens up for you. At every stage, we at Zenva are here to help you elevate your coding journey to the next level.

We invite you to continue with your adventure in coding by checking the various courses available in our Python Mini-Degree.

This comprehensive set of courses demystifies Python programming, one of the most versatile languages in the tech realm today. The Python Mini-Degree offers a sweeping tour across a multitude of topics including coding basics, complex algorithms, object-oriented programming, game and app development. After completing these courses, you can apply the skills learned to various industries and build a professional portfolio of Python project.

All our courses are taught by qualified instructors who are subject experts, and they are designed to keep up with the ever-changing tech realm. Obsolete content is regularly updated, and we provide reinforcement through live coding lessons and in-course quizzes.

For our intermediate-level learners, make sure to check out our advanced Python courses too. Keep learning and keep growing!


Embracing randomness in programming is no longer a matter of luck, but a skill in your arsenal, thanks to Python’s Random module. You now possess the foundational knowledge for creating more dynamic, secure, and complex applications. As a coder, you have taken yet another step toward expanding your versatility and adaptability in this ever-evolving digital world.

We, at Zenva, believe in turning learners into creators. So, don’t stop at just understanding these concepts, start implementing them in your own projects! Predict the unpredictable, and create the incredible. To keep exploring Python and dive further into the sea of coding, join us in our Python Courses. Let’s keep coding, and keep growing, together!

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