Python To C# Tutorial – Complete Guide

Are you looking to expand your programming knowledge? Have you chosen Python as your starting point and now you’re keen to explore the popular language of C#? If so, you’ve stumbled upon the perfect guide. This comprehensive six-part tutorial will nudge you gently from Python to C#, making the transition smoothly. It will provide you with an engaging and accessible journey, letting you grasp the value and usability of both languages, and ultimately help you upgrade your coding skills.

Even if you’re a seasoned coder looking for a new challenge, our guide is designed to cater to your needs, providing engaging examples and codes in every section to hold your interest and enhance your learning experience.

What is C# and why should you learn it?

Often used in game development with Unity, C# is a versatile, object-oriented programming language with extensive libraries, providing you countless opportunities to apply your coding prowess. Its clean syntax creates a user-friendly language, one that natively supports Windows applications, making it a popular choice worldwide.

Whether you’re a beginner or an experienced programmer, knowing C# opens doors to a wide range of professional opportunities like developing web applications, designing web services, and especially, creating stunning games. It’s time to take the plunge.

Python to C# – The essential transition

Python, with its simplicity and versatility, has several commonalities with C#, but the similarities end as we dig deeper. Equipping yourself with an understanding of both languages lets you leverage their unique advantages, thus elevating your skill set as a developer.

Our aim is to make the shift from Python to C# as seamless as possible, by helping you understand the distinctive attributes of each coding language, and by guiding you through the intricate process of translating Python code into C#.

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Basic Syntax and Variables

Being the fundamental building blocks of any code, exploring the way variables are declared and how to understand their syntax in C# is our first step in this Python to C# transition. Let’s have a look:

Variable Declaration

// Python Code 
name = "John"

// Equivalent C# Code
string name = "John";

In Python, you don’t have to specify the type of a variable when declaring it. In C#, on the other hand, every variable needs a clearly defined type.

Arithmetic Operations

// Python Code 
a = 5
b = 2
print(a * b)

// Equivalent C# Code
int a = 5;
int b = 2;
Console.WriteLine(a * b);

In both languages, the arithmetic operations are similar but note the use of semicolon (;) at the end of each line in C#, which is not necessary in Python.

Data Types and Structures

C# and Python both use common basic data types like integers and strings, but as we dig deeper into more complex structures, we start to notice differences. Let’s see how some common data structures are implemented in both languages.

Lists and Arrays

// Python Code 
list_var = [1, 2, 3]

// Equivalent C# Code
int[] array_var = { 1, 2, 3 };

In Python, we have flexible lists for holding an ordered collection of items. In C#, we use arrays which need to be initialized with a specific length, that can’t be changed later.

Dict and Dictionary

// Python Code 
dict_var = { 'name': 'John', 'age': 25 }

// Equivalent C# Code
Dictionary<string, object> dict_var = new Dictionary<string, object>();
dict_var.Add('name', 'John');
dict_var.Add('age', 25);

Python dictionaries are fairly simple and intuitive in their implementation. The C# equivalent, Dictionary, does the same job albeit in a slightly more verbose manner.

Control Flow

Control flow statements are the logic behind every program you create. Learning how to translate control flow statements from Python to C# is a crucial step in our transition. Let’s compare some of the commonly used control flow statements in both languages.

Conditional Statements

// Python Code 
x = 10
if x > 5:
    print("x is greater than 5")

// Equivalent C# Code
int x = 10;
if (x > 5) {
    Console.WriteLine("x is greater than 5");

In both Python and C#, the “if” statement is used for condition checking. However, C# requires parentheses for condition and braces for defining the code block for the condition.

For Loop

// Python Code 
for i in range(5):

// Equivalent C# Code
for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {

You’ll notice that the range function in Python is replaced with an initialization, loop condition, and afterthought in C#’s for loop. Also, remember to use semicolons for the conditions in the for loop in C#.

While Loop

// Python Code 
i = 0
while i < 5:
    i += 1

// Equivalent C# Code
int i = 0;
while (i < 5) {

The “while” loop follows a similar structure in both languages, with the noticeable difference being the use of “++” in C# for incrementing.

Switch Statement

// C# Code
int dayOfWeek = 3;
switch (dayOfWeek) {
    case 1:
    // ... Other days ...
        Console.WriteLine("Invalid day");

C# has an additional control flow structure called the switch statement, which isn’t available in Python. The “switch” statement is an efficient way to implement multiple conditions and makes your C# code more readable and manageable.

In summary, the syntax between Python and C# has differences but remains similar at the core. Thus, transitioning from Python to C# offers you the opportunity to enhance your skills by understanding, comparing, and leveraging the unique features of both languages to solve complex problems.

Function and Class Declaration

Functions and classes form the next layer of complexity in learning a programming language. Here, we’ll understand how these building blocks are implemented and used in Python and C#.

Function Declaration

// Python Code 
def greet_user(name):
    print(f"Hello, {name}!")


// Equivalent C# Code
void GreetUser(string name) {
    Console.WriteLine($"Hello, {name}!");


Both Python and C# support functions. You’ll notice that unlike Python, C# requires an explicit return type for functions. If a function doesn’t return any value, we use the void keyword. C# also requires the parameters’ type to be specified in the function signature.

Class Declaration

// Python Code 
class User:
    def __init__(self, name, age): = name
        self.age = age

    def display_user(self):
        print(f"Name: {}, Age: {self.age}")

user = User("John", 25)

// Equivalent C# Code
class User {
    public string name { get; set; }
    public int age { get; set; }

    public User(string name, int age) { = name;
        this.age = age;

    public void DisplayUser() {
        Console.WriteLine($"Name: {}, Age: {this.age}");

User user = new User("John", 25);

Classes in C# and Python have a similar structure. The key differences are in how properties (instance variables) and methods are declared in each language. Notably, you have to use the new keyword in C# to create an instance of a class, which is not required in Python.

Dealing with Exceptions

Knowing how to handle errors effectively is essential in any language, Python and C# are no different. Let’s see how error handling can be done in both languages.


// Python Code 
    print(5 / 0)
except ZeroDivisionError:
    print("Cannot divide by zero!")

// Equivalent C# Code
try {
    Console.WriteLine(5 / 0);
catch (DivideByZeroException) {
    Console.WriteLine("Cannot divide by zero!");

Both languages use the try-catch mechanism to handle exceptions. In C#, notice that the catch keyword is used instead of Python’s except, but they serve the same purpose.

Working with Files

Reading and writing from files is a common requirement in most programs. Let’s see how this can be done in Python and C#.

File Handling

// Python Code 
with open('file.txt', 'w') as f:
    f.write('Hello, World!')

// Equivalent C# Code
using (StreamWriter writer = new StreamWriter("file.txt")) {
    writer.Write("Hello, World!");

While the syntax for handling files is somewhat different between Python and C#, the concept behind it remains the same – opening the file in the correct mode (read or write), performing the necessary operations, and then correctly closing the file.

Remember, practice is key when transitioning from Python to C#. Look at Python code you’ve previously written and attempt to convert it to C#, you’ll understand the nuances and differences more effectively. Happy coding!

Where to Go Next?

Well done on taking the first steps towards learning C# and understanding how it differs from Python. Remember, the world of programming is immense, and there’s always something more to learn, a new skill to master and new challenges to conquer.

With C# under your belt, why not venture into game development? Our Unity Game Development Mini-Degree is just the right starting point. It’s a comprehensive collection of courses, meticulously designed to teach you game development using Unity. The curriculum caters to everyone – whether you’re a beginner looking to develop essential game development skills, or an intermediate programmer aiming to learn more about game mechanics, audio effects, enemy AI, and much more.

Unity is an industry-favored platform used by both AAA and indie developers to create stunning 2D, 3D, AR, and VR games, boosting high earning potential and lucrative opportunities in the game industry. Within Zenva Academy’s course, you will engage with interactive lessons, tackle interesting coding challenges, and reinforce what you’ve learned with quizzes. Coupled with the anytime and anywhere access, you can master Unity at your own pace while earning completion certificates.

For a broader perspective on what you could learn, check out our range of courses in our Unity Collection.

Your coding journey has just begun with us, and we’re committed to offering you the most promising, high-quality educational resources to help you go from beginner to professional.


Embracing a new programming language can be challenging but equally rewarding. The transition from Python to C# unveils new opportunities, frameworks and opens doors to exciting domains like game development. Equip yourself with this valuable skill set and make a meaningful impact in the coding world.

To delve deeper, enhance your learning, and apply your understanding in creating real-world projects, join us at Zenva Academy. Our courses are designed to be engaging and interactive, ensuring you become a proficient programmer, confident, and ready to take on any coding challenge that comes your way.

Did you come across any errors in this tutorial? Please let us know by completing this form and we’ll look into it!

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