TorusMesh in Godot – Complete Guide

Welcome to our tutorial on the TorusMesh class in Godot 4, an exciting step forward in your game development journey! Here, you’ll learn about a component that can dramatically elevate your 3D visuals and game dynamics. Whether you’re a hobbyist or an aspiring professional, understanding how to utilize the TorusMesh can significantly impact the quality and appeal of your games. Keep reading to discover the power of this class, why it’s an essential tool in your development toolkit, and how mastering it can lead to more engaging and sophisticated game elements.

What is the TorusMesh?

The TorusMesh is a versatile class within the powerful open-source game engine, Godot 4. It allows developers to create a torus – a doughnut-shaped 3D mesh – directly within the engine. This class provides a quick way to generate complex shapes without needing external 3D modeling software, streamlining the game development process.

What is it for?

A TorusMesh can be used for various purposes in a game. It can serve as a decorative element, a component of a puzzle, or an obstacle in a racing game. Its unique shape makes it ideal for creating rings players might fly through, elements of a futuristic UI, or even parts of a cosmic scenery in a space-themed game.

Why Should I Learn It?

Learning how to manipulate the TorusMesh in Godot 4 can drastically improve your ability to create rich and complex 3D environments. The skills you gain will not only make your games look more professional but also provide a solid understanding of working with PrimitiveMesh classes in Godot. This knowledge is essential for any game developer looking to create or customize their 3D assets within Godot, enabling you to turn your creative ideas into playable reality.

CTA Small Image
FREE COURSES AT ZENVA
LEARN GAME DEVELOPMENT, PYTHON AND MORE
ACCESS FOR FREE
AVAILABLE FOR A LIMITED TIME ONLY

Creating a Basic TorusMesh

To start utilizing the TorusMesh in Godot 4, you first need to create a new instance of the class. This can be done using GDScript, the scripting language used in Godot.

var my_torus = TorusMesh.new()

Once you’ve created a new TorusMesh instance, you may want to add it to your scene. For that, you’ll need a MeshInstance node.

var my_torus_instance = MeshInstance.new()
my_torus_instance.mesh = my_torus
add_child(my_torus_instance)

You now have a torus in your game world, but it’s very basic. We’ll want to adjust its properties to make it more interesting.

Modifying TorusMesh Properties

The TorusMesh has several properties you can modify to change its appearance, such as the major and minor radius, the ring and sides count, which define the level of detail of the mesh.

To modify the major radius, which is the radius from the center of the hole to the middle of the tube:

my_torus.major_radius = 2.0

Adjusting the minor radius changes the thickness of the tube itself:

my_torus.minor_radius = 0.5

To increase the level of detail, you might increase the ring and side count. However, keep in mind that higher values may impact performance.

my_torus.ring_count = 64
my_torus.sides_count = 32

Now let’s put these new skills to work by creating a torus with modified properties and adding it to the scene.

func _ready():
    var custom_torus = TorusMesh.new()
    custom_torus.major_radius = 2.0
    custom_torus.minor_radius = 0.5
    custom_torus.ring_count = 64
    custom_torus.sides_count = 32
    
    var torus_instance = MeshInstance.new()
    torus_instance.mesh = custom_torus
    add_child(torus_instance)

Setting Up Materials

A torus without a material might look dull. Let’s give it some color and shine with a SpatialMaterial.

Firstly, create a new SpatialMaterial and set its albedo (color):

var material = SpatialMaterial.new()
material.albedo_color = Color(1, 0, 0)  # Red color

Next, apply this material to your torus:

my_torus_instance.material_override = material

But why stop there? Let’s make it metallic and add some roughness to simulate different materials:

material.metallic = 0.8
material.roughness = 0.3

Apply the updated material to your TorusMesh instance:

my_torus_instance.material_override = material

Here’s how all these steps come together to form a colorful, metallic-looking torus:

func _ready():
    var custom_torus = TorusMesh.new()
    custom_torus.major_radius = 2.0
    custom_torus.minor_radius = 0.5
    custom_torus.ring_count = 64
    custom_torus.sides_count = 32
    
    var torus_instance = MeshInstance.new()
    torus_instance.mesh = custom_torus

    var material = SpatialMaterial.new()
    material.albedo_color = Color(1, 0, 0)  # Red color
    material.metallic = 0.8
    material.roughness = 0.3
    torus_instance.material_override = material

    add_child(torus_instance)

By applying these code examples, you’ll take your first steps towards mastering the TorusMesh in Godot 4, enabling you to enhance the visual flair of your games. Stay tuned for the following tutorial parts, where we’ll dive deeper into Godot’s capabilities and continue to build our knowledge of 3D game development.Great, let’s dive deeper into enhancing the functionality of our TorusMesh!

Animating the TorusMesh

Imagine you want the TorusMesh to rotate continuously, simulating a hovering ring in a sci-fi game. To do this, you’ll need to write a script that adjusts the rotation of the MeshInstance.

Add to the ‘_process’ function:

func _process(delta):
    torus_instance.rotate_x(0.5 * delta)
    torus_instance.rotate_y(1.0 * delta)

This makes the torus rotate along the x and y axes, resulting in a smooth, continuous rotation effect.

What if you want the torus to spin towards the player’s current position instead?

func _process(delta):
    var player_pos = $Player.global_transform.origin
    var torus_pos = torus_instance.global_transform.origin
    var target_dir = (player_pos - torus_pos).normalized()
    torus_instance.global_transform.basis = Basis(target_dir, Vector3.UP)

Adding User Interaction

Next, let’s add a feature where the TorusMesh changes color when the player gets close to it.

First, add a function to check the distance:

func _process(delta):
    if torus_instance.global_transform.origin.distance_to($Player.global_transform.origin) < 5.0:
        torus_instance.material_override.albedo_color = Color(0, 0, 1)  # Blue color
    else:
        torus_instance.material_override.albedo_color = Color(1, 0, 0)  # Red color

This code changes the color of the torus to blue when the player is within a distance of 5 units, otherwise, it stays red.

Dynamic Physical Interaction

Suppose you want your TorusMesh to react physically to player interaction, like a hoop that can be knocked around. For this, we need to add a Rigidbody to our TorusMesh instance.

var torus_body = RigidBody.new()
torus_body.add_child(torus_instance)
torus_body.collision_layer = 1
torus_body.collision_mask = 1
add_child(torus_body)

The RigidBody makes the torus physically simulated, responsive to forces and collisions, defining which layers it interacts with.

For a fun interaction, let’s make the torus bounce away when the player collides with it. Add a collision shape to your TorusMesh.

var collision_shape = CollisionShape.new()
collision_shape.shape = my_torus  # Assuming a convex shape matches your mesh
torus_body.add_child(collision_shape)

Now, let’s respond to collisions by applying force to the torus. We update the ‘_integrate_forces’ method of the RigidBody:

func _integrate_forces(state):
    var total_force = Vector3.ZERO
    for collision in state.get_contact_count():
        var contact = state.get_contact_local_position(collision)
        var force_direction = (contact - torus_instance.global_transform.origin).normalized()
        total_force += force_direction * 10  # Adjust the multiplier as necessary

    apply_central_impulse(total_force)

With this code, the torus will react whenever it collides with something, bouncing in the opposite direction of the contact point.

Enhancing Visual Effects

Finally, let’s enhance the visual appeal of the torus with dynamic lighting. Add a PointLight node to the scene and script it to move around the torus.

var light = PointLight.new()
light.translate(Vector3(3, 3, 0))  # Position the light
add_child(light)

To create a dynamic light effect, let’s animate the light revolving around the torus.

func _process(delta):
    light.rotate_y(1.5 * delta)
    if light.translation.x > 5.0:
        light.translation.x = -5.0

This example illustrates the tip of the iceberg regarding Godot’s powerful scripting and node system. By following through with these examples, you’re equipping yourself with the knowledge to create captivating 3D experiences that keep players engaged. Plus, you’re ready to harness the full potential of Godot 4 for your imaginative game development projects! Keep experimenting and remember, the only limit is your creativity.Let’s enhance our TorusMesh by adding more functionality and interaction possibilities.

Firstly, you might want to create an effect where the torus becomes translucent when a player approaches it—hinting at a secret or a power-up. Here’s how you can adjust the material’s alpha when the player is close:

func _process(delta):
    var distance_to_player = torus_instance.global_transform.origin.distance_to($Player.global_transform.origin)
    if distance_to_player < 5.0:
        torus_instance.material_override.albedo_color.a = max(0.1, 1 - distance_to_player / 5.0)

With this code, the closer the player gets to the torus, the more transparent it becomes.

Now say you want the TorusMesh to emit particles when an event is triggered—such as a player passing through it. First, you’ll need to create a ParticleSystem:

var particle_system = Particles.new()
torus_instance.add_child(particle_system)

Next, configure the particle system with a process material and settings to suit your visual requirements:

particle_system.process_material = ParticlesMaterial.new()
particle_system.process_material.emission_shape = ParticlesMaterial.EMISSION_SHAPE_SPHERE
particle_system.process_material.emission_sphere_radius = torus_instance.mesh.minor_radius

You could also have the torus detect when a player has passed through it by using an Area node coupled with a CollisionShape matching the interior of the torus. Here’s how to set up the Area node:

var torus_area = Area.new()
var torus_collision_shape = CollisionShape.new()
torus_collision_shape.shape = SphereShape.new()
torus_collision_shape.shape.radius = torus_instance.mesh.minor_radius
torus_area.add_child(torus_collision_shape)
torus_instance.add_child(torus_area)

Once the Area is set up, connect the `area_entered` signal to trigger the particle system:

torus_area.connect("area_entered", self, "_on_TorusMesh_area_entered")

func _on_TorusMesh_area_entered(area):
    if area == $Player/CollisionShape:
        particle_system.emitting = true

Now let’s give the TorusMesh a pulsating glow that varies in intensity. Set up the material to use emission:

material.emission = Color(1, 1, 1)
material.emission_energy = 0.0  # Start with no glow

Then animate the emission intensity in the `_process` function:

func _process(delta):
    var emission_strength = sin(OS.get_ticks_msec() / 1000.0) * 0.5 + 0.5
    torus_instance.material_override.emission_energy = emission_strength

This code makes the torus gently pulse by adjusting its emission energy based on a sine wave.

To add another level of interactivity, create a script that distorts the torus’s mesh when clicked, as if it were made of a malleable material:

func _input(event):
    if event is InputEventMouseButton and event.pressed:
        var mouse_position = get_viewport().get_mouse_position()
        var ray_from = camera.project_ray_origin(mouse_position)
        var ray_to = ray_from + camera.project_ray_normal(mouse_position) * 1000
    
        var space_state = get_world_3d().direct_space_state
        var intersection = space_state.intersect_ray(ray_from, ray_to)
        
        if intersection and intersection.collider == torus_instance:
            var local_click_pos = torus_instance.to_local(intersection.position)
            # Distort the vertices near the click position
            pull_vertices_near_point(local_click_pos, 1.0, 0.5)

Finally, implement the `pull_vertices_near_point` function, that adjusts vertex positions:

func pull_vertices_near_point(local_pos, radius, strength):
    var surface_tool = SurfaceTool.new()
    surface_tool.begin(Mesh.PRIMITIVE_TRIANGLES)
    
    # Access the mesh's vertices (This is a simplified example)
    for vertex in torus_instance.mesh.get_mesh_arrays()[Mesh.ARRAY_VERTEX]:
        var distance = local_pos.distance_to(vertex)
        if distance < radius:
            var pull_vector = (vertex - local_pos).normalized() * strength
            surface_tool.add_vertex(vertex + pull_vector)
        else:
            surface_tool.add_vertex(vertex)
        
    # Here you would add code to rebuild the mesh with the distorted vertices
    # ...

This illustrates a concept of how a mesh could be manipulated in real time. Note that in practice, you would need to handle vertex manipulation and the mesh’s rebuilding more intricately.

Experimenting with these ideas helps to deepen your understanding of how Godot’s various systems and nodes can work together. It allows you to create interactive, dynamic 3D objects that can react to the player and to each other, which is a foundational skill in crafting engaging 3D worlds. Keep exploring and trying new things, as it’s one of the best ways to learn and advance your Godot 4 skills!

Continuing Your Game Development Journey

You’ve taken crucial steps in understanding the intricacies of the TorusMesh in Godot 4 and discovered some of the many ways you can make your 3D objects come to life. But there’s so much more to learn and explore in game development with Godot! We encourage you to keep building on what you’ve started, experiment with new ideas, and continue creating. It’s your persistent curiosity and hands-on practice that will sharpen your skills and help you craft memorable gaming experiences.

Take your knowledge to new heights with our comprehensive Godot Game Development Mini-Degree. Here, you’ll dive deep into the powerful features of the Godot 4 engine across a wide range of projects. You’ll become adept at bringing your creative visions to life, whether you’re looking to design compelling 2D platformers or immerse players in vast 3D worlds. Our courses are designed to guide you every step of the way, from beginner concepts to advanced development techniques.

And for those eager to explore an even broader collection of learning materials, visit our full suite of Godot courses. At Zenva, we offer a path for every learner — guiding you from where you are now, to confidently tackling professional-level projects. Start today and unlock the potential of game development with our project-based, flexible learning options.

Conclusion

In this tutorial, you’ve expanded your game development palette by exploring the versatile TorusMesh in Godot 4, adding life to your 3D scenes and interactivity to your games. The journey doesn’t end here—there’s a whole universe of possibilities to explore within Godot, and each skill you build opens up new pathways for innovation and creativity. Remember, the games you dream of creating can become a reality with the right tools and dedication to learning.

Ready to take your game development skills even further? Join us at our Godot Game Development Mini-Degree and master the trade through engaging, hands-on projects that will give you the practical experience to shine in the gaming industry. Game design, programming, and creating immersive environments are all within your reach with Zenva. We can’t wait to see what incredible games you’ll build next!

FREE COURSES
Python Blog Image

FINAL DAYS: Unlock coding courses in Unity, Godot, Unreal, Python and more.