Planes are a fundamental component in 3D graphics and game development, acting as invisible barriers, pathways, or even as tools for collision detection and level design. Understanding how planes work and how to manipulate them in a 3D space is an essential skill for any aspiring game developer. Enter Godot 4, a powerful open-source game engine that makes handling 3D objects like planes more intuitive and straightforward, even for beginners.

Table of contents

## What is the Plane Class in Godot 4?

The **Plane** class in Godot 4 represents a mathematical plane in 3D space, defined in Hessian normal form. It is a versatile entity that can be used for various purposes within the game development process. The *Plane* class embodies an equation that consists of a normal vector and a distance from the origin *d*. This equation determines the plane’s position and orientation in the world.

## What is the Plane Used For?

Planes have a multitude of uses in game development. They can serve as invisible boundaries that define gameplay areas, aid in collision detection for physics simulations, or even help in rendering optimizations such as occlusion culling. Knowing how to utilize the *Plane* class enables developers to create more dynamic and interactive game environments.

## Why Should I Learn About the Plane Class?

Understanding the *Plane* class allows you to take advantage of Godot 4’s rich feature set to the fullest. If you’re just starting your journey in game development, mastering these fundamental concepts is key to creating the mechanics and systems for your games. For the experienced coders, delving into the details of the *Plane* class can mean the difference between good and great game optimization. Learning about planes is not just a stepping stone for beginners but a fine detail for experts to polish their craft.

With this high-level understanding in mind, let’s delve into the world of planes in Godot 4 and discover how to harness this robust feature to its fullest potential.

## Creating and Initializing Planes in Godot 4

To begin using the Plane class in Godot, we need to create and initialize it. You can create a new Plane in a variety of ways depending on the context of its use. Here are a few common methods:

var my_plane = Plane() # Creates a default plane var my_plane_with_normal = Plane(Vector3(1, 0, 0), 5) # Creates a plane with a normal vector and a distance from the origin var my_plane_from_points = Plane(Vector3(0, 0, 0), Vector3(1, 0, 0), Vector3(0, 1, 0)) # Creates a plane from three points in space

These code snippets show how to instantiate a plane in different scenarios, whether it’s a default plane, a plane defined through a normal and distance, or a plane created from three points in 3D space.

## Working with Plane Properties

Once you have a Plane instance, you can manipulate its properties, such as the normal vector and the distance from the origin. This allows you to re-orient or re-position your plane within the game world:

# Assuming 'my_plane' is a previously defined Plane instance # Set the normal vector my_plane.normal = Vector3(0, 1, 0) # Set the distance from the origin my_plane.d = 10

We’ve just learned how to adjust the orientation and position of a Plane by modifying its normal vector and distance from the origin. These properties are crucial when it comes to defining the behavior of your plane in relation to the game world.

## Checking Points Relative to the Plane

In game development, we often need to check the position of points relative to a plane. This is important for collision detection, AI logic, and more. The Plane class offers methods that let you easily perform these checks:

# Assuming 'my_plane' is a previously defined Plane instance # Checks if a point is above the plane var is_above = my_plane.is_point_over(Vector3(0, 2, 0)) # Returns true if the point is above # You can also get the signed distance of a point from the plane var distance = my_plane.distance_to(Vector3(0, 3, 0)) # Returns the distance which could be positive or negative based on the side of the plane

By calling these methods, you can determine if objects are above or below the plane, or find out how far objects are from it, which can inform various gameplay mechanics.

## Intersecting a Ray with the Plane

Ray-plane intersections are vital for determining sight lines, shooting mechanics, or even simply selecting objects in a 3D environment. The Plane class in Godot simplifies the process of ray intersection with the following methods:

# Assuming 'my_plane' is a previously defined Plane instance # Intersect a ray defined by a point and a direction vector var ray_origin = Vector3(0, 10, 0) var ray_direction = Vector3(0, -1, 0) var intersection_point = my_plane.intersect_ray(ray_origin, ray_direction) # Check if the ray actually intersects the plane if intersection_point: print("The ray intersects the plane at: ", intersection_point) else: print("The ray does not intersect the plane")

This example demonstrates how to calculate the intersection point of a ray with a plane. Such capabilities are the foundation for more complex interactions in a 3D game environment, enhancing the overall interactivity and realism in a game.

Armed with these fundamental examples, you now have a solid understanding of creating and manipulating planes in Godot 4. In the next section, we will build upon this knowledge to explore even more advanced uses of the Plane class.

## Advanced Uses of the Plane Class in Godot 4

Now that we’ve covered the basics, it’s time to explore some of the more advanced applications of the Plane class in Godot. These examples will demonstrate how we can apply our knowledge of planes to create engaging and dynamic game elements.

Let’s start with using planes for spatial partitioning, which comes in handy when organizing objects in the game space for efficient processing.

# Create an array of Plane objects to define distinct regions in the game world var planes_for_partitioning = [ Plane(Vector3(1, 0, 0), 10), Plane(Vector3(-1, 0, 0), 10), Plane(Vector3(0, 1, 0), 10), Plane(Vector3(0, -1, 0), 10) ] # Function to determine which partition a point belongs to func determine_partition(point: Vector3) -> int: for i in range(planes_for_partitioning.size()): if planes_for_partitioning[i].is_point_over(point): return i return -1 # Point does not belong to any partition

This snippet illustrates how we can use an array of planes to separate the game world into partitions and determine where a point lies within these partitions.

Moving on to another advanced concept, we will see how planes can be used for reflection effects, which are crucial for creating realistic water surfaces, mirrors, and other reflective elements in games.

# Assuming 'my_plane' is a plane representing a reflective surface # Function to compute the reflection of a vector (such as velocity) on a plane func reflect_vector(vector: Vector3) -> Vector3: return vector - my_plane.normal * 2 * vector.dot(my_plane.normal) # Using the function to reflect an object's velocity vector var incident_velocity = Vector3(1, -2, 1) # The initial velocity vector var reflected_velocity = reflect_vector(incident_velocity)

By subtracting the product of the normal vector, the velocity vector, and a scalar, we can derive the reflected vector, which represents the new direction after a collision with a reflective plane.

When it comes to visibility in games, knowing whether certain regions are visible from a player’s perspective can be used for occlusion culling and AI detection systems. Godot’s Plane class can be used to define visibility regions or ‘frustums’.

# Create planes representing the sides of a camera frustum var frustum_planes = [ Plane(cam_global_transform.xform(Vector3(1, 0, 0)), cam_global_transform.origin), Plane(cam_global_transform.xform(Vector3(-1, 0, 0)), cam_global_transform.origin), Plane(cam_global_transform.xform(Vector3(0, 1, 0)), cam_global_transform.origin), Plane(cam_global_transform.xform(Vector3(0, -1, 0)), cam_global_transform.origin) ] # Function to check if an object's bounding box is within the frustum (camera's field of view) func is_bounding_box_visible(bounds: AABB) -> bool: for plane in frustum_planes: if plane.distance_to(bounds.position) < 0 or plane.distance_to(bounds.position + bounds.size) < 0: return false return true

This code provides us with a way to calculate if an object’s bounding box is visible within a certain range, improving the realism and performance of the game.

Lastly, let’s consider how planes can be used as a grounding element for placing objects on virtual terrain or floors. This is known as ‘projecting’ a point onto a plane:

# Assuming 'my_plane' is a plane representing the ground # Function to project a point onto the plane func project_point_onto_plane(point: Vector3) -> Vector3: var distance = my_plane.distance_to(point) return point - my_plane.normal * distance # Using the function to place an object on the terrain var object_position = Vector3(5, 15, 5) var grounded_position = project_point_onto_plane(object_position)

This function calculates the precise spot where an object should be placed to appear as if it’s resting on the ground plane, a common requirement for positioning items in the game world.

Through these diverse examples, you can see how the Plane class in Godot 4 offers a rich set of functionalities that extend well beyond simple collision detection. They allow us to partition space effectively, simulate reflective behaviors, manage visibility within the game environment, and project objects onto surfaces — all of which are crucial aspects for professional game development. As we continue to push the boundaries of what’s possible in Godot, the Plane class stands as an indispensable tool in the game developer’s toolkit.

Utilizing planes for gameplay mechanics often involves developing systems that enable in-game objects to interact with these invisible barriers. For instance, let’s dive into how we can handle complex tasks such as portal rendering, dynamic environmental effects, and even pathfinding.

Portals are a vivid example of plane utilization in games. They enable characters to teleport from one location to another instantaneously. Implementing a portal system involves checking if the player has crossed a plane that represents a portal’s threshold:

# Assuming 'portal_plane' is a Plane object that represents the entrance of a portal # Function to detect if an object has crossed the portal threshold func has_crossed_portal(object_transform: Transform) -> bool: return portal_plane.distance_to(object_transform.origin) < 0

By evaluating the distance from the object’s origin to the portal plane, we can determine whether the player has passed through the portal, triggering a teleportation function.

Dynamic environmental effects, such as splashes when an object hits water, rely on detecting the exact moment of intersection with a plane:

# Assuming 'water_plane' is a Plane object that represents a body of water # This function could be called regularly to check for intersections func check_for_splash(objects: Array): for obj in objects: if obj.velocity.y < 0: # Moving downward if water_plane.is_point_over(obj.previous_position) and not water_plane.is_point_over(obj.position): # Trigger a splash effect emit_splash_effect(obj.position)

This conditional logic serves to verify that an object was previously above the plane and is now below it, suggesting that it has just pierced the water’s surface and should generate a splash effect.

When designing levels or environments, we may want to place a variety of objects procedurally. The following example shows how planes can assist in anchoring objects at random locations on an uneven surface:

# Assumed 'terrain_plane' represents the ground # Function to place an object at a random position on the terrain func place_on_terrain(item: Spatial): var random_point = Vector3(rand_range(-10, 10), 200, rand_range(-10, 10)) # A high altitude point var projected_point = terrain_plane.project_point_on_plane(random_point) item.translation = projected_point

In this code snippet, we randomly generate coordinates within a specified range and project the point onto the terrain plane to find where on the “ground” the object should be positioned.

Using planes for pathfinding can simplify the AI’s ability to navigate the world. A typical use-case involves defining walkable areas as planes and checking whether these are reachable by NPCs:

# Assumed 'floor_plane' represents a walkable area # Function to determine if an NPC can walk to a certain point func can_walk_to(npc: KinematicBody, target_point: Vector3) -> bool: return floor_plane.is_point_over(npc.translation) and floor_plane.is_point_over(target_point)

This example merely checks for the walkability of straight-line paths. A more sophisticated approach would require integrating these plane checks with a full pathfinding algorithm.

Additionally, in multiplayer games, we can use planes to designate team territories and check for invasion or presence of opposing players:

# Assumed 'teamA_territory' and 'teamB_territory' are Plane objects # Function to alert if an opposing player invades team territory func check_for_invasion(player): if player.team == "A" and teamB_territory.is_point_over(player.position): alert_team("B", "Our territory is being invaded by Team A!") elif player.team == "B" and teamA_territory.is_point_over(player.position): alert_team("A", "Our territory is being invaded by Team B!")

This system can not just prompt a strategic response from team members but also serves to enhance dynamics between competing teams.

The versatility of the Plane class in Godot extends even further. These examples barely scratch the surface of what can be achieved. With creativity and understanding, planes can become the silent backbone of complex game mechanics, visual effects, and overall gameplay dynamics, paving the way for immersive and interactive 3D gaming experiences.

## Where to Go Next with Your Godot Journey?

Now that you’ve taken the first steps into the world of 3D game development with Godot 4, the journey doesn’t end here. Your newfound knowledge of the Plane class is just a compass that points towards a plethora of possibilities waiting to be explored. To continue expanding your game development skills and to begin crafting your own unique gaming worlds, we invite you to delve deeper into the comprehensive courses offered in our Godot Game Development Mini-Degree.

From mastering the art of 2D and 3D game development to programming intricate game mechanics, our Godot Game Development Mini-Degree has been crafted to provide you with hands-on experience in building your own games from scratch using the latest version of the Godot engine. Designed to fit your learning pace, our courses aim to guide you through the creation of your very first game in under two hours and steadily build up your skill set, making you proficient and confident in your game development journey.

If you’re looking for an even broader spectrum of content, take a look at our array of Godot courses. Whether you’re just starting out or looking to refine your already polished skills, at Zenva we aim to empower you to go from beginner to professional with ease and versatility. Dive into the myriad of possibilities and start turning your visions into playable realities today!

## Conclusion

Embarking on the Godot 4 journey opens up a universe of creativity, where each new concept learned becomes a building block towards your very own digital creations. Whether you’re sculpting landscapes, designing intricate game mechanics, or simply bringing your dreams to life, the Plane class is one of many powerful tools Godot places at your disposal. We at Zenva are committed to supporting your growth every step of the way, offering a treasure trove of knowledge through our Godot Game Development Mini-Degree. Let your imagination lead the way and let us provide the map and compass to navigate the exciting terrain of game development.

Remember, your journey does not stop here. With each course completed and every project perfected, you enhance not just your portfolio, but also your ability to think, design, and innovate in the realm of game development. Continue to build, create, and share your work with the world. We at Zenva can’t wait to see the amazing games you’ll create and the incredible experiences you’ll craft with Godot 4. To begin or continue your journey, dive into our comprehensive library of Godot content and turn your virtual dreams into reality.

**FINAL DAYS:** Unlock coding courses in Unity, Godot, Unreal, Python and more.